# Classical reasoning for intuitionists

Posted on April 4, 2018

By ratiocination, I mean computation.

—Thomas Hobbes

## Introduction

Realizability captures the computational flavor of intuitionistic logic by defining what the proof/realizer of a proposition ought to be in terms of computable objects i.e. terms of the lambda calculus. Here’s a quick, and I hope, intuitive summary of a realizability interpretation for higher-order logic.

is proven by if
$$P\land Q$$ $$(p, q)$$ $$p$$ proves $$P$$ and $$q$$ proves $$Q$$
$$P\lor Q$$ $$\textsf{inl}(p)$$ $$p$$ proves $$P$$
$$P\lor Q$$ $$\textsf{inr}(q)$$ $$q$$ proves $$Q$$
$$P\Rightarrow Q$$ $$\lambda p.~f(p)$$ for all proofs $$p$$ of $$P$$, $$f(p)$$ proves $$Q$$
$$\forall x, P(x)$$ $$\lambda x.~p(x)$$ for all $$x$$, $$p(x)$$ proves $$P(x)$$
$$\exists x, P(x)$$ $$(x, px)$$ $$px$$ proves $$P(x)$$
$$x = y$$ $$\textsf{refl}$$ $$x$$ is semantically identical to $$y$$

Furthermore, let $$\top$$ be always proven by $$()$$ and $$\bot$$ be proven by nothing at all. Then, define $$\lnot P\triangleq P\Rightarrow\bot$$. In other words, we know $$P$$ doesn’t hold when it implies a contradiction.

As a result, a proof of the law of excluded middle (LEM) $$P\lor\lnot P$$—the single axiom rejected by intuitionists—would be an algorithm that can compute evidence in support of or contrary to $$P$$ for any $$P$$. This is absurd, what if $$P$$ is uncomputable or your logic is incomplete? The rejection of LEM is a statement that the only knowledge obtainable is that which is computable modulo completeness.

However, LEM is admissible with certain caveats. First, you can do the obvious thing and include LEM without a realizer. Of course, any canonicity result you have proven about your theory is now utterly destroyed. Furthermore, any theory with a constructive proof of decidability $$\textsf{decide}(P)$$, which computes evidence for or against $$P$$, may include LEM with $$\textsf{decide}$$ as its realizer. However, when working in an undecidable theory like higher-order logic, there are different methods of recovering classical reasoning. Here’s a summary of all of the ones I’ve seen during my studies.

## Double-negation translation

We may embed classical logic into intuitionistic logic via a syntactic transformation called the double-negation translation. For the moment, let’s restrict our attention to propositional logic.

Double-negation translation
Double negate any atomic subformula and disjunction in a formula.

Then, we get the following result.

Corollary of Glivenko’s theorem
$$\phi$$ is a classical tautology if and only if the double-negation translation of $$\phi$$ is an intuitionistic tautology.

Essentially, whenever we can’t prove a classical tautology intuitionistically, we may obtain a result that is equal in truth (in terms of truth-value semantics), since double-negation is eliminable in classical logic, but not in evidence (in terms of realizability). For example, the version of De Morgan’s law $$\lnot(P\land Q)\Rightarrow\lnot P\lor\lnot Q$$ is classically but not intuitionistically valid. However, we can prove the following analogue (in Lean).

example {P Q : Prop} : ¬(¬¬P ∧ ¬¬Q) → ¬¬(¬¬¬P ∨ ¬¬¬Q) :=
λ h c, h ⟨λ np, c (or.inl (λ nnp, nnp np)), λ nq, c (or.inr (λ nnq, nnq nq))⟩

And of course, we can prove something equivalent to LEM.

example {P : Prop} : ¬¬(¬¬P ∨ ¬¬¬P) :=
λ h, h (or.inr (λ nnp, h (or.inl nnp)))

When quantifiers enter the mix, the translation becomes a bit more complicated, see the here for more details.

While this method technically works, it’s a little unsatisfying, because we end up having to prove a different theorem altogether. So, maybe we can do better.

Reference: Double-negation translation at the nLab

## Proof erasure

Let’s further investigate the possiblity of admitting LEM without a realizer. In general, we are interested in proving propositions of the form $$\forall x, (P(x)\Rightarrow\exists y, Q(y))$$. Computationally, it is a statement that objects with some property can be transformed into other objects with some other property, so its realizer is of the form $$f\triangleq\lambda x.~\lambda px.~(f(x), g(f(x), px))$$. Now, assume that the realizers of our knowledgebase are extracted to a codebase to be run as a complete program. By virtue of our proofs, $$Q(y)$$ holds for all outputs $$y$$ and that all callers of $$f$$ are guaranteed to pass inputs $$x$$ satisfying $$P(x)$$, so the interactions in our codebase are totally safe. As a result, at runtime, we only care about the computational content$$x$$ and $$y$$—and not the proofs witnessing their adherence to certain specifications. Thus, we can erase them from the realizer to obtain the term $$\lambda x.~f(x)$$, which is equally safe but dramatically more efficient in the best case.

There are many ways to codify erasure into a proof system, so here’s one way: Lean has a special universe Prop for propositions which is distinct from the universe Type for proper types with computational content. However, the terms of types in Prop can be safely erased if and only if they are not involved in the computation of an object whose type is in Type. Consider the following example.

example : Π (x y : ℕ), x ≤ y → ℕ
| x _ (nat.less_than_or_equal.refl _) := x
| _ y _                               := y

This term returns $$x$$ if $$x = y$$ or $$y$$ if $$x < y$$. However, it will not typecheck in Lean, since a term from the $$\leq$$ proposition is being used to compute the output. If it were erased, then the realizer would not know whether to return $$x$$ or $$y$$!

With erasure, noncomputable definitions like LEM are safely included into Lean’s standard library without breaking canonicity. This is useful in reasoning about algorithms; for example, it is easier to prove that a greedy algorithm returns only optimal outputs by contradiction (i.e. double-negation elimination, which is equivalent to LEM)—by showing they are not suboptimal. The algorithm itself is constructive by virtue of being an algorithm, but the specificational proof—of optimality—need not be constructive, since it is erased at runtime.

def greedy_is_optimal (x : input) : {y // is_optimal y} :=
begin
existsi ...,
...
end

To recover classical reasoning completely, Prop is also proof irrelevant i.e. it denies that multiple proofs of the same proposition are distinguishable up to propositional equality (in the case of Lean; some systems have this hold judgmentally). After all, if certain data are to be erased anyway, why should the proof system distinguish between them? For example, if we have a type of nonzero natural numbers consisting of pairs $$(n, pn)$$ where $$pn$$ is a proof that $$n\neq0$$, then we would like $$(n,pn)=(n,pn')$$ if and only if $$n=n'$$ i.e. we don’t want to have to prove that $$pn=pn'$$. Users of systems without proof irrelevance do not have this luxury, and would have to manually prove $$pn=pn'$$, which is a pain and even more painful if it is outright false by design. We can summarize this section with the following mantra.

Classical reasoning is admissible when it’s not leveraged computationally

To see how other systems do it, check out the reference below as well as Constable’s paper on virtual evidence.

Reference: Erasure by Stephanie Weirich

## First-class continuations

Lastly, it turns out that we can embed LEM directly (kind of) in a language with first-class continuations, like Standard ML. For the moment, forget about everything you know about continuations, and assume that SML defines type 'a cont = 'a -> 'b but abstracted, callcc : ('a cont -> 'a) -> 'a, and throw : 'a cont -> 'a -> 'b. Expanding the type of callcc shows that it realizes Peirce’s law, which is equivalent to LEM! In fact, here’s a proof that Peirce’s law implies LEM, with some definitions first ($$\bot$$ and disjunction).

datatype void = void

fun absurd (v : void) : 'a =
absurd v

type 'a not = 'a -> void

datatype ('p, 'q) or = L of 'p | R of 'q

open SMLofNJ.Cont

fun lem (_ : unit) : ('p, 'p not) or =
callcc (fn k => R (throw k o L))

This seems too good to be true, does SML have a magic oracle that can decide any proposition? No! To understand why, we need to figure out how continuations, the terms inhabiting 'a cont, work. In reality, a continuation is not a function, but a function-like object that intuitively represents the current evaluation context when acquired through callcc. throwing a value to the current continuation (from callcc) resumes execution of the term in that context but with the new value, implementing some sort of non-local control flow.

Thus, looking at how LEM is implemented, it is not a realizer in our interpretation—it will immediately return $$\lnot P$$ unless it is thrown a proof of $$P$$ later in time. To see this in action, consider the following query of whether or not an integer exists.

- case lem () of
L i  => print (Int.toString i ^ "\n")
| R ni => print "integers don't exist!\n"

integers don't exist!

That’s debatable…in fact, if we refute this by constructing a witness, we get some sensible output, namely our proof: 0.

- case lem () of
L i  => i
| R ni => absurd (ni 0)
- val it = 0 : int

Nevertheless, we get to do classical reasoning, so here’s double-negation elimination i.e. proof by contradiction.

fun dne (h : 'p not not) : 'p =
case lem () of
L a  => a
| R na => absurd (h na)

Finally, we can prove the above variant of De Morgan’s law directly, following the proof here.

fun de_morgan (h : ('p * 'q) not) : ('p not, 'q not) or =
dne (fn f => h (dne (f o L), dne (f o R)))

Recall that unit is $$\top$$. If we run de_morgan on some examples, we get straight up counterintuitive results.

- case de_morgan (fn ((x, y) : unit * void) => y) of
L np => print "true is false!\n"
| R nq => print "false is false!\n"

true is false!

- case de_morgan (fn ((x, y) : unit * void) => y) of
L np => absurd (np ())
| R nq => print "false is false!\n"

false is false!

Stay away from callcc, kids.

Reference: Continuations and Logic by Evan Cavallo

P.S. Any double-negation translation with respect to proof terms is a transformation into continuation-passing style, where the current evaluation context is an explicit parameter of every term to be called at every computation step.

## Conclusion

Classical reasoning in intuitionistic logic is attainable using different techniques with different implications. For something more like the last section, which dealt with realizing LEM directly, check Alexandre Miquel’s A Survey of Classical Realizability to learn about such advanced topics as forcing and the model theory behind the madness.